The Learning Tree
by Gordon Parks
Harper & Row, 320 pp., $4.05
by Brigid Brophy
World, 160 pp., $3.95
Gordon Parks is a staff photographer for Life who recently published in that magazine a camera essay about the Black Muslims and a moving reminiscence of his boyhood in a Kansas border village during the 1920’s. The pictures of the latter essay are accompanied by excerpts from The Learning Tree, a first novel in which Mr. Parks creates a fictional construction of his early years on the American prairie.
For a story of American Negro life the setting of “Cherokee Flats,” Kansas, is unusual. In other respects the novel is deep in the American grain. A successful and mature American looks back at his own impoverished, underprivileged childhood in order to discern the significant forces, events, and choices which carried him away from the threat of mediocrity and failure and set him moving, however tensely and tentatively, toward security and accomplishment. In a sense this story is always the same for all Americans, whether black or white, who survive the gauntlet of an upbringing in this extra-ordinary country. (We say “Where do you come from?” meaning “How did you manage to get here?”) And in a sense the story is always unique, because the textures of American experience are so diverse, the routes of escape from ignominy so variable and unexpected.
Newt Winger, the twelve-year-old hero of The Learning Tree, inhabits a world of melodramatic violence—the first four chapters contain accounts of a cyclone, a savage beating, a fatal shooting, a drunken assault, an automobile crash which kills two people—and he inhabits a world where all moral issues are drawn in a stark opposition of black and white. Whereas the melodrama and the brutal simplification of morality stem from the myth of Negro inferiority imposed upon the town by the dominant white majority, violence, either threatened or actually inflicted, is the social mechanism employed by the whites to keep their power and privileges intact. Newt’s problems in growing up are manifold. He must eschew a countering violence which can only lead to a deeper entrapment; he must come to an understanding of society and of himself in terms other than those offered by the prevailing racist myth; somehow he must keep alive and sane in an environment that is both physically dangerous and emotionally disintegrative, while he picks up the second-class education which the town allots to its Negro children; and he must avoid settling into the attitudes of brooding hatred or of “shiftless” indifference which have always been available to colored people in this country as masks for a profound despair.
Newt survives and succeeds because he is brave, gifted, energetic, and because he is helped. His parents, the matriarchal Sarah and the silent, industrious Jack, are towers of strength. A few white people show him that love between the two races can exist, and the very openness of the prairie, its enormous sky and its lack of natural boundaries, suggest that a career commensurate with his talents and dreams remains somehow open to him …