Jefferson Davis, American
by William J. Cooper Jr.
Knopf, 757 pp., $35.00
Jefferson Davis: Unconquerable Heart
by Felicity Allen
University of Missouri Press, 809 pp., $34.95
Most literate Americans know who Jefferson Davis was. But what they know is mostly an abstraction: the presidency of a defeated Confederacy in the Civil War. Some of the more historically learned have, to be sure, given an inordinate amount of attention to this abstraction through end-less debates among themselves over Davis’s administrative capacities, his grasp of military requirements, and relations with his subordinates and his Congress, all largely in comparison with his Union counterpart Abraham Lincoln.
Happily, William Cooper and Felicity Allen have changed all this for the better. The books they have written, though very different in method, complement each other in providing between them a generously layered portrait of a man whose superior talents, variety of experience and achievement, breadth of culture, and abundantly faceted traits of character have at last made of him an object of broad general interest for the first time in the 112 years since his death in 1889.
Jefferson Davis, his parents’ tenth and last child, was born on June 3, 1808, in Christian County, Kentucky, and was named after the then-sitting president, Thomas Jefferson. His upwardly mobile father had scratched his way from marginal if not downright impoverished beginnings to the point where, having moved about from one place to another, he settled down finally in Wilkinson County, Mississippi, in the southwestern corner of the state. By 1820 he had acquired some four hundred acres of good land there, and owned eleven slaves. Samuel Davis, though never wealthy, brought his family a fair degree of prosperity and comfort; he worked in the fields alongside his sons and his slaves, and despite his own lack of more than a minimal education he determined that his youngest son should receive the best academic training available anywhere within reach. Samuel was a good father and a good family man; the Davises were held together in bonds of affection, and their dealings with their neighbors and each other were those of uprightness, good humor, and trust. When Samuel died in 1824 his place was assumed by his oldest son, Joseph, who thenceforth acted as surrogate father to Jefferson, twenty-four years his junior. It was an exceptionally fruitful relationship, lasting in some form until the end of Joseph’s life.
Jefferson Davis did indeed receive an excellent education. He had the talent and intelligence to make the most of it …