Durkheim’s Call to Order

One of the more curious features of sociology is the number of times that it has been founded. In the late nineteenth century both Max Weber in Germany and Emile Durkheim in France behaved as founding fathers of the new science, without taking any interest whatever in each other’s work.

Tell Me Where You Stand On Kronstadt

Twenty miles to the west of Leningrad there is an island in the Gulf of Finland on which stands the naval base and city of Kronstadt. But Kronstadt is not only the name of a place; it is also a symbol of that moment when, in February and March, 1921, …

On Marcuse

At the end of One Dimensional Man Marcuse saw only one chance of revolutionary protest, and that was “nothing but a chance.” The chance was that “the substratum of the outcasts and outsiders, the exploited and persecuted of other races and other colors, the unemployed and unemployable” might turn to …

Made in U.S.A.

The dangers of editing encyclopedias are not so great these days as they used to be. When Diderot brought out the first volumes of the Encyclop├ędie in 1751, he was continuously persecuted by clerical and political authorities: in 1752 the first two volumes were suppressed. In 1759 the license to …

Son of Ideology

Mr. George Lichtheim’s brilliant new book cannot be read in isolation from his three earlier works, Marxism, Marxism in Modern France, and Europe and America. Taken together these four constitute what is arguably the most important contribution to political thinking in Britain or America in the last decades. Those professional …

Modern Times

Historical optimism and pessimism can be equally sentimental. Until recently pessimism seemed to be, in this century, the more likely sentimentality. For the sentimental optimism of the last century, apparent in such writers as Macaulay and Mrs. Markham, was based upon an assumption which, it seemed, could scarcely survive the …

Irrational Man

One of the least remarked characteristics of the thought of C. G. Jung is its almost total lack of cultural context. The history of Jung’s affiliation to and break with Freud, as usually recounted, conveys a quite false sense of historical continuity. As the story is told, Freud is seen …

After Hegel

It is only when we read histories of philosophy of the highest order that the inadequacy of the history of philosophy as an intellectual enterprise comes home to us. For to write the history of philosophy apart from the rest of history is to suggest that philosophy is a self-contained …

The Socialism of R. H. Tawney

The deaths of R. H. Tawney and Hugh Gaitskell occurred so close together that they provide an apt symbol for the end of a period in the history of the British Labour Movement. It was a period in which the Right wing of the Labour Party was hard put to …

Freud As Moralist

Those who are bored by moral simplicity will find these letters dull. They cover thirty years of unbroken friendship and mutual admiration, which was founded on deep agreement about the fundamentals of psychoanalysis, and disagreement about many other topics. As such they are an invaluable corrective to the view of …