James Joll (1936–2011) was a British historian. His books include The Origins of the First World War and Europe Since 1870.

IN THE REVIEW

Nietzsche vs. Nietzsche

The Nietzsche Legacy in Germany, 1890–1990

by Steven E. Aschheim

Forgotten Fatherland: The Search for Elisabeth Nietzsche

by Ben Macintyre
Of the three thinkers who have been among the most influential of the twentieth century—Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud—Marx has, for the moment at least, been cast aside and Freud no longer holds the unchallenged position he once had. That leaves Nietzsche, whose thought seems particularly appropriate to the fragmented, bewildered, …

Tales from the Vienna Woods

Alma Mahler or the Art of Being Loved

by Françoise Giroux

The Bride of the Wind: The Life and Times of Alma Mahler-Werfel

by Susanne Keegan
Do we need yet more books about Vienna in the early twentieth century? Publishers clearly think we do, for we now have two new biographies of Alma Mahler (although a perfectly adequate one was published as recently as 1983) as well as a selection in English from the letters of …

Revolt in Munich!

The Munich Secession: Art and Artists in Turn-of-the-Century Munich

by Maria Makela

Diary of an Erotic Life

by Frank Wedekind, translated by W.E. Yuill, edited by Gerhard Hay
In 1911 an unsuccessful landscape painter, supported by 140 other artists, published a pamphlet called A Protest by German Artists. It stated: In view of the great invasion of French art, which for the past few years occurred in the so-called progressive art centers of Germany, it seems to me …

Stompin’ with the Savoy

Italy and its Monarchy

by Denis Mack Smith
Denis Mack Smith is the leading writer in English on nineteenth- and twentieth-century Italian history. Over nearly forty years he has done much to challenge many myths and to counter the view of the liberal prime minister Giovanni Giolitti, who once said, “It would not be right to let beautiful …

Art and Anarchy

Félix Fénéon: Aesthete and Anarchist in Fin-de-Siècle Paris

by Joan Ungersma Halperin, foreward by Germaine Brée

Anarchism and Cultural Politics in Fin de Siècle France

by Richard D. Sonn
When in 1922 the Metropolitan Museum in New York organized an exhibition of modern French painting, the Paris Bulletin de la Vie Artistique reported that a “Committee of Citizens and Friends of the Museum” had published a protest: We see in this so-called art one of the symptoms of the …

No Man’s Land

Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age

by Modris Eksteins

The Lost Voices of World War I: An International Anthology of Writers, Poets and Playwrights

edited by Tim Cross
Each of the two World Wars not only changed the political, social, economic, and ideological structure of the world in a very practical way; they also left behind symbols that have continued to haunt us.

City Lights

Threshold of a New World: Intellectuals and the Exile Experience in Paris, 1830–1848

by Lloyd S. Kramer

Restoration and Reaction, 1815–1848

by André Jardin and André-Jean Tudesq, translated by Elborg Forster
Paris has long been a powerful symbol as well as a city, and it has symbolized many contradictory things. It is the city of luxury and high glamour—“centre de luxe et des lumières,” as the anarchist P-J Proudhon called it, a city to which men were attracted by, as Gustave …