Raymond Carr was Warden of St. Antony’s College, Oxford, and has written extensively on modern Spanish history.

IN THE REVIEW

Spain and the Communists

Spain Betrayed: The Soviet Union in the Spanish Civil War

edited by Ronald Radosh, Mary R. Habeck, and Grigory Sevostianov
Does Spain Betrayed, a collection of documents from the Soviet archives, as Robert Conquest claims in a comment on the jacket, “finally and totally” destroy long-held myths about the extent and influence of the Soviet role in the Spanish Civil War? Well aware that two generations of scholars have been …

Homage from Catalonia

Visionaries: The Spanish Republic and the Reign of Christ

by William A. Christian Jr.
On June 29, 1931, two children saw, on the hillside of Ezkioga, a village in the Basque provinces of northeastern Spain, a vision of the Virgin Mary. By the end of 1931, an estimated one million people had come to Ezkioga to listen to the accounts of the two children, …

A Seemingly Ordinary Man

Franco

by Paul Preston
On July 18, 1936, a group of right-wing officers of the Spanish army rose in rebellion against the legal government of the democratic Second Republic. The conspirators hoped for a sharp, short, military takeover. The resistance of working-class organizations and of some of the government security forces, particularly in Madrid …

Breaking Up with Castro

Self-Portrait of the Other: A Memoir

by Heberto Padilla
In March 1980 the poet Heberto Padilla, after futilely asking permission to leave Cuba for some ten years, was summoned by Fidel Castro who told him that he could now go. “Intellectuals,” he told Padilla, “are generally not interested in the social aspect of a revolution.” As early as 1961, …

A Revolutionary Hero

Inside the Monster: Writings on the United States and American Imperialism

by José Martí, translated by Elinor Randall

Our America: Writings on Latin America and the Struggle for Cuban Independence

by José Martí, translated by Elinor Randall
Fidel Castro’s revolutionary movement of July 26 was created out of hatred and love: hatred of Batista the Tyrant and love of Martí the Apostle. When I spent some time in Cuba in the early Sixties the revolution still seemed inspired by Martí. Martí was everywhere: there were quotations from …

The Invention of Latin America

The Cambridge History of Latin America: Vol. I, Colonial Latin America

edited by Leslie Bethell

The Cambridge History of Latin America: Vol. II, Colonial Latin America

edited by Leslie Bethell
Upon her husband’s becoming prime minister in 1886 Lady Salisbury was advised to pay no visits. “So I never pay any,” she later told her friends, “except to foreign ambassadresses. Of course I don’t include those of the South American republics or any others of the people who live up …

How Franco Made It

The Franco Regime: 1936–1975

by Stanley G. Payne
Professor Payne is a man of few illusions. He has a profound contempt for utopian politics and a marked distrust, if not distaste, for the left in general. He would seem to regard Franco’s dictatorship as a deserved punishment for the follies and failures of democracy in the Second Republic …