Noel Malcolm is a Senior Research Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford. His books include Bosnia: A Short History and Kosovo: A Short History. (December 2007)

The New Montenegro: The State That Was Not a State

When is a state not a state? More than once in modern history, a possible answer to this question has been: when it is Montenegro. The academic industry that studies “state formation” has examined all kinds of examples, from Anglo-Saxon England to postcolonial Africa. But it has paid curiously little …

In the Palace of Nightmares

The Albanian novelist Ismail Kadare once observed that every writer has two ages, two chronologies. First there is the author’s biological age; then there is his or her reputation, which is born at a different date and lives on another timescale. Kadare himself was born in 1936. His international reputation …