The Murderers of Mexico

Atentamente, El Chapo (Sincerely, El Chapo)

by Héctor de Mauleón
Nexos, August 1, 2010 (available at www.nexos.com.mx)

La Ruta de Sangre de Beltrán Leyva (The Path of Blood of Beltrán Leyva)

by Héctor de Mauleón
Nexos, January 1, 2001 (available at www.nexos.com.mx)

Mafia & Co.: The Criminal Networks in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia

by Juan Carlos Garzón, translated from the Spanish by Kathy Ogle
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 187 pp., available at www.wilsoncenter.org
guillermoprieto_1-102810.jpg
Shaul Schwarz/Reportage by Getty Images
Mausoleums with windows, air conditioning, and upstairs rooms for visiting mourners, built for rich traffickers from the state of Sinaloa who were killed in the Mexican drug war, Culiacán, July 5, 2009

How to write about Mexico’s drug war? There are only a limited number of ways that readers can be reminded of the desperate acts of human sacrifice that go on every day in this country, or of the by now calamitous statistics: the nearly 28,000 people who have been killed in drug-related battles or assassinations since President Felipe Calderón took power almost four years ago, the thousands of kidnappings, the wanton acts of rape and torture, the growing number of orphaned children.

For reasons they themselves probably do not completely understand, the various Mexican drug clans and organizations responsible for so much bloodshed have acquired a liking for public attention, and to hold it they have developed a grisly theatrical performance of death, a roving display of grotesque mutilations and executions. But for all the constant innovations, one horrifying beheading is, in the end, much like the next one. The audience’s saturation point arrives all too quickly, and news coverage of the war, event-driven as all news is, has become the point when people turn the page or continue surfing.

We, the people in charge of telling the story, know far too little ourselves about a clandestine upstart society we long viewed as marginal, and what little we know cannot be explained in print media’s standard eight hundred words or less (or broadcast’s two minutes or under). And the story, like the murders, is endlessly repetitive and confusing: there are the double-barreled family names, the shifting alliances, the double-crossing army generals, the capo betrayed by a close associate who is in turn killed by another betrayer in a small town with an impossible name, followed by another capo with a double-barreled last name who is betrayed by a high-ranking army officer who is killed in turn. The absence of understanding of these surface narratives is what keeps the story static, and readers feeling impotent. Enough time has passed, though, since the beginning of the drug war nightmare1 that there is now a little perspective on the problem. Academics on both sides of the border have been busy writing, and so have the journalists with the most experience. Thanks to their efforts, we can now begin to place some of the better-known traffickers in their proper landscape.

1.

In 1989, an up-and-coming drug trafficker called Joaquín Guzmán, and known generally as El Chapo or Chapo—which is what short, stocky men are called in Guzmán’s home state of Sinaloa, on the northwest coast of Mexico—picked a fight with some of his business associates in Tijuana. Four years later, the estranged associates sent a hit team to Guadalajara, where Chapo Guzmán was living. According…


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