George Lichtheim (1912–1973) was a scholar of Marx and Marxism. Lichtheim was a regular contributor to The Review and a contributing editor of Commentary. His books include From Marx to Hegeland Europe in the Twentieth Century.


What Socialism Is and Is Not

Socialists are at a minimum committed to economic planning that goes counter to the operation of an economy in which private firms predominate and profits are distributed among shareholders and managers. A system of this kind necessarily perpetuates the class division between a wealthy minority and a propertyless majority. A …

Technocrats vs. Humanists

Les désillusions du progrès

by Raymond Aron

D'une Sainte Famille à l'autre

by Raymond Aron
“An industrial society can only prosper if the workers understand the meaning of their task and are fully associated with the elaboration of all the decisions concerning them…for my own part I think, notably but not exclusively, of the Swedish example.” Thus M. Chaban-Delmas, France’s new Prime Minister, addressing the …

A New Twist in the Dialectic

Pour Marx

by Louis Althusser

Lire Le Capital Tome I

by Louis Althusser and Jacques Rancière and Pierre Macherey
Some two years ago a sympathetic observer of the Parisian intellectual scene, writing in the London Times Literary Supplement, drew attention to the recent rise to prominence of the group of theorists associated with Louis Althusser, a professional philosopher and the holder of a teaching post at the prestigious Ecole …

The Nouveau Frontier

The American Challenge

by J.J. Servan-Schreiber, translated by Ronald Steel
When Le Défi Américain was published last year, it was immediately a bestseller all over Western Europe. One can see why. The subject it dealt with—America’s threatening technological hegemony—was important. The author was chief editor of an influential liberal weekly, L’Express. There was a ready-made audience in the shape of …

Reason and Revolution

Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx

by Nicholas Lobkowicz

The Evolution of Dialectical Materialism

by Z.A. Jordan
The owl of Minerva spreads its wings when the shades of dusk are falling. Hegel’s celebrated aphorism has often been invoked to characterize the difference between his own contemplative bent and the activism of his rebellious disciples. Philosophy (it was said) was indeed backward-looking by its very nature. Hegel had …

Catching Up With History

The Obstructed Path. French Social Thought in the Years of Desperation 1930-1960

by H. Stuart Hughes
Some months ago, in taking note rather too briefly of Mr. Roy Pierce’s valuable study, Contemporary French Political Thought (Oxford, 1966), the present reviewer felt constrained to remark that American and British writers rarely perceive what is most striking about France: the commitment of so many Frenchmen of all political …