Martin Malia is Professor of History Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley. He is the author, most recently, of Russia Under Western Eyes, from the Bronze Horseman to the Lenin Mausoleum. (November 2001)


Lenin and the ‘Radiant Future’

Lenin: A Biography

by Robert Service

Lenin's Embalmers

by Ilya Zbarsky and Samuel Hutchinson, translated from the French by Barbara Bray
Following the Russian Revolution of 1905, a minor participant in that inconclusive upheaval, Vladimir Ulyanov, was on the run from Finland (then in the Tsar’s empire) to Sweden. It was December 1907, and his route lay over the Gulf of Bothnia separating the two countries. As it turned out, the …

The August Revolution

The new Russian Revolution of August 1991 has now won out over the heritage of the first Russian Revolution of October 1917. Begun in 1989 with the emergence of a democratic opposition to communism led by Andrei Sakharov and launched into the broad light of day with Boris Yeltsin’s election …

A New Russian Revolution?

In the six-year-long disintegration of communism euphemistically known as “restructuring” (the meaning, after all, of perestroika) the Russian elections of June 12 will surely count as a revolutionary turning point. In presidential and municipal balloting, the homeland of Leninism elected three anti-Leninist leaders—Boris Yeltsin, Gavriil Popov, and Anatoly Sobchak—by between …

A Manifesto for Soviet Democracy

The Declaration of the Democratic Platform Group, published below, has been circulating in the Soviet Union as a leaflet to promote candidates favoring democratic reform who are running in the elections to a special Party Congress this spring. This dissident manifesto was first released at the end of January, but …

Poland’s Eternal Return

God's Playground: A History of Poland; Vol. I, The Origins to 1795; Vol. II, 1795 to the Present

by Norman Davies

A Republic of Nobles: Studies in Polish History to 1864

edited and translated by J.K. Fedorowicz
It is not necessary to hope in order to undertake, nor to succeed in order to persevere. —Pascal “Solidarity, the first free labor union in a communist country,” the Western press has begun most commentaries on Poland since the great strike of August 1980. True enough, but by no …