Contents


Sander’s Human Comedy

August Sander: People of the Twentieth Century A Photographic Portrait of Germany

People of the Twentieth Century by August Sander, edited by Die Photographische Sammlung/SK Stiftung Kultur, revised and newly compiled by Susanne Lange, Gabriele Conrath-Scholl, and Gerd Sander

The Good General

Battle Ready by Tom Clancy, with General Tony Zinni (Ret.) and Tony Koltz

You, the People: The United Nations, Transitional Administration, and State-Building by Simon Chesterman

The Making of a Mess

Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush’s War Cabinet by James Mann

A Pretext for War: 9/11, Iraq, and the Abuse of America’s Intelligence Agencies by James Bamford

After the Empire: The Breakdown of the American Order by Emmanuel Todd, translated from the French by C. Jon Delogu, with aforeword by Michael Lind

What Happened to ‘Brown’?

Silent Covenants: Brown Board of Education and the Unfulfilled Hopes for Racial Reform by Derrick Bell

Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America’s Struggle for Equality by Richard Kluger, revised and expanded edition

All Deliberate Speed: Reflections on the First Half Century of Brown v. Board of Education by Charles J. Ogletree Jr.

Improvising the Holocaust

The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939–March 1942 by Christopher R. Browning, with contributions by Jürgen Matthäus

John Clare’s Genius

John Clare: A Biography by Jonathan Bate

I Am’: The Selected Poetry of John Clare edited by Jonathan Bate

John Clare and the Folk Tradition by George Deacon

Contributors

John Ashbery is the author of several books of poetry, including Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror (1975), which received the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, the National Book Critics Circle Award, and the National Book Award. His first collection, Some Trees (1956), was selected by W. H. Auden for the Yale Younger Poets Series. He has also published art criticism, plays, and a novel. From 1990 until 2008 Ashbery was the Charles P. Stevenson, Jr. Professor of Languages and Literature at Bard College. Ashbery’s most recent collection of poetry is Quick Question. His Collected French Translations will be published in April 2014 in two volumes, one of Prose and one of Poetry.

Louis Begley’s books include Why the Dreyfus Affair Matters and the novel Wartime Lies. His eleventh novel, Killer Come Hither, will be published in April 2015.

Isaiah Berlin (1909–1997) was a political philosopher and historian of ideas. Born in Riga, he moved in 1917 with his family to Petrograd, where he witnessed the Russian Revolution. In 1921 he emigrated to England. He was educated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and became a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, where he was later appointed Professor of Social and Political Theory. He served as the first president of Wolfson College, Oxford, and as president of the British Academy.

Elaine Blair is a regular contributor to The New York Review. (April 2014)

Clare Cavanagh is a professor of Slavic and Comparative Literature at Northwestern University. She received the National Book Critics’ Circle Award in criticism for her most recent book, Lyric Poetry and Modern Politics: Russia, Poland, and the West.
 (August 2014)

István Deák is Seth Low Professor Emeritus at Columbia. He is the author, with Jan Gross and Tony Judt, of The Politics of Retribution in Europe: World War II and Its Aftermath.

Elizabeth Drew is a regular contributor to The New York Review. Her most recent book, Washington Journal: Reporting Watergate and Richard Nixon’s Downfall, was published in May.

 (September 2014)

James Fenton is a British poet and literary critic. From 1994 until 1999, Fenton was Oxford Professor of Poetry; in 2007 he was awarded the Queen’s Gold Medal for Poetry.

Peter W. Galbraith, a former US Ambassador to Croatia, is Senior Diplomatic Fellow at the Center for Arms Control and a principal at the Windham Resources Group, which has worked in Iraq. His new book, Unintended Consequences: How War in Iraq Strengthened Americaå?s Enemies, has just been released. (October 2008)

Timothy Garton Ash is Professor of European Studies and Isaiah Berlin Professorial Fellow at St. Antony’s College, Oxford, and a Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford. He has just published, with Edward Mortimer and Kerem Öktem, Freedom in Diversity: Ten Lessons for Public Policy from Britain, Canada, France, Germany and the United States.


Anthony Grafton is Henry Putnam University Professor of History and the Humanities at Princeton University. His most recent book is The Culture of Correction in Renaissance Europe.


Robert Hass is the author of several books of poems, most recently Sun Under Wood. Poet laureate of the United States from 1995 to 1997, he teaches English at the University of California at Berkeley. (November 2005)

Richard Horton is a physician. He edits The Lancet, a weekly medical journal based in London and New York. He is also a visiting professor at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

Tim Judah is a correspondent for The Economist. For The New York Review he has reported from, among other places, Afghanistan, Serbia, Uganda, and Armenia.

Joseph Kerman is emeritus professor of music at the University of California, Berkeley. He began writing music criticism for The Hudson Review in the 1950s, and is a longtime contributor to The New York Review of Books and many other journals. His books include Opera as Drama (1956; new and revised edition 1988), The Beethoven Quartets (1967), Contemplating Music (1986), Concerto Conversations (1999), and The Art of Fugue (2005).

Louis Menand is the Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor of English at Harvard. His books include The Marketplace of Ideas, American Studies and The Metaphysical Club.

Czeslaw Milosz (1911–2004) was born in Szetejnie, Lithuania. Over the course of his long and prolific career he published works in many genres, including criticism (The Captive Mind), fiction (The Issa Valley), memoir (Native Realm), and poetry (New and Collected Poems, 1931-2001). He was a member of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1980.

Edmund S. Morgan is Sterling Professor of History Emeritus at Yale. His most recent book is The Genuine Article: A Historian Looks at Early America. (June 2011)

Fintan O’Toole is Literary Editor of The Irish Times and Leonard L. Milberg Visiting Lecturer in Irish Letters at Princeton. His latest book is A History of Ireland in 100 Objects. (December 2013)

Thomas Powers is the author of The Man Who Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA (1979), Heisenberg’s War: The Secret History of the German Bomb (1993), Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to al-Qaeda (2002; revised and expanded edition, 2004), and The Confirmation (2000), a novel. He won a Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting in 1971 and has contributed to The New York Review of Books, The New York Times Book Review, Harper’s, The Nation, The Atlantic, and Rolling Stone. His latest book, The Killing of Crazy Horse, won the 2011 Los Angeles Times Book Prize for History. He is currently writing a memoir of his father, who once told him that the last time he met Clare Boothe Luce was in the office of Allen Dulles.


Luc Sante is the author of Low Life, Evidence, The Factory of Facts, Kill All Your Darlings, and Folk Photography. He has translated Félix Fénéon’s Novels in Three Lines and written the introduction to George Simenon’s The Man Who Watched Trains Go By (both available as NYRB Classics). He is a frequent contributor to The New York Review of Books and teaches writing and the history of photography at Bard College.

Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. (1917–2007) was an American historian and social critic. He served as adviser to Presidents Kennedy and Johnson. His Journals: 1952– 2000 were published in 2007.

Ronald Steel is Professor of International Relations at the University of Southern California, a recent fellow at the American Academy in Berlin, and the author of biographies of Walter Lippmann and Robert Kennedy.

Kathleen M. Sullivan was until recently the Dean of Stanford Law School, where she has returned to the faculty as the Stanley Morrison Professor of Law. (September 2004)

Brian Urquhart is a former Undersecretary-General of the United Nations. His books include Hammarskjöld, A Life in Peace and War, and Ralph Bunche: An American Life. His article in this issue draws on his essay in Tyringham Topics.
 (February 2013)

Adam Zagajewski’s most recent book is Unseen Hand:
Poems. (August 2014)